Information Management


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There are 410 entries in the glossary.
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Term Definition
A0Printers. A0 - International paper size 841mm x 1189mm
 
A1Printers. A1 - International paper size 594 mm x 841 mm
 
A2Printers. A2 - International paper size 4201mm x 594mm
 
A3Printers. A3 - International paper size 297 mm x 420 mm
 
A5Printers. A5 - International paper size 148 mm x 210 mm
 
A6Printers. A6 International paper size 105 mm x 48 mm
 
A8Printers. A8 - International paper size 53 mm x 74 mm
 
AblativeOptical. Method of optical recording where holes are made in the optical media.
 
AccessTerms and conditions of granting permission to use archives and collections in a repository; access may be restricted in some instances because of confidentiality, the fragile state of the documents or statutory requirements e.g. Public Records Acts.
 
Access ControlThe service, which protects information through the control of authorisations of individuals for knowledge or rights of manipulation. Restrictions placed on user's access rights to systems, applications, and directories are examples of Access Control.
 
Access TimeStorage products. The time required by the read/write head to reach the right position on the disk, i.e. the time required for access to specific data. Access time equals latency plus positioning time.
 
AccessionA group of records taken into a repository from the same source at the same time; the process of taking in such material.
 
Acquisitions/collecting policyThe official statement issued by a repository identifying the types of archival material it will collect or acquire and the terms and conditions under which it will do so.
 
ActuatorStorage products. Head positioning assembly consisting of a voice coil motor and head arms to position the read/write head and servo head over disk tracks.
 
Additive PrimariesScanners. Red, green, and blue light that, together, produce white light. These are the primary colours of light from which all other colours can be made.
 
AdsorptionStorage products. When a hard disk drive is left unused for a long period of time, the head may stick to the disk so the spindle motor does not start. This state is called adsorption. Adsorption is likely to occur when the HDD is exposed to humidity in excess of the limit specified in the device specifications for a long time.
 
AliasingScanners. Visibly jagged steps along angled lines or object edges, due to sharp tonal contrasts between pixels.
 
Alpha ChannelScanners. An 8-bit channel reserved by some image-processing applications for masking or additional colour information.
 
AMSAccession Management System. A system to manage the accessions process.
 
Analogue (Analog)General computing. Analogue refers to the representation of data by a continuously changing physical state, such as intensity, frequency, or voltage.
 
Anamorphic SizingScanners. Unequal scale change in the horizontal and vertical direction of a scanner. This enables the scanner to adjust the ratio in the horizontal and vertical direction
 
APIAbbreviation of Application Program Interface, a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts the blocks together. Most operating environments, such as MS-Windows, provide an API so that programmers can write applications consistent with the operating environment. Although APIs are designed for programmers, they are ultimately good for users because they guarantee that all programs using a common API will have similar interfaces. This makes it easier for users to learn new programs.
 
Appraisal - ArchivesThe selection of records for permanent preservation as archives by analysing their value or potential value as archival material.
 
Appraisal - Records ManagementAssigning a value to records that help to decide how long they should be retained.
 
Archival valueThe value, evidential and/or informational, which justifies the permanent retention of records as archives.
 
ArchiveThe whole body of records of continuing value of an organisation or individual. Sometimes called 'corporate memory'. The term is also used to mean a place where inactive records of continuing value are kept and preserved for legal, historical or research purposes.
 
ArrangementThe organisation of archival material according to archival principles of provenance and original order, where the latter does not exist the archivist will devise an arrangement based on the perceived inter-relationship of the documents.
 
Artificial IntelligenceA broad term describing the field of developing computer programmes to simulate human thought processes and behaviours.
 
ATAComputer interfaces. Originally developed as IDE interface, this interface became known under various names. e.g. AT-Bus interface, PC-AT interface, Task File interface.
 
Audit TrailThe deliberate and systematic generation of recorded evidence of business activities for present and future accountability.
 
AuthenticationThe process of establishing the legitimacy of a given user.
 
AuthenticityAuthenticity is the representation of a document, completely and entirely in accordance with the original recording and the function that it was intended to fulfill.
 
Automatic IndexingIndexing without any human input, whereby the computer selects terms to represent the document using statistical algorithms and powerful software.
 
AvailabilityThe service that protects the individual from accidental or deliberate denial of access to information and other services. System redundancy is an example of the Availability security service.
 
Balanced scorecardA business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.
 
Baseline ReflectanceOptical. The reflectance of an unwritten, non-grooved area of a disk through the protective layer
 
Batch ScanningScanners. Sequential scanning of multiple originals using previously-defined, unique settings for each.
 
BeowolfA cluster of computers connected to a high-speed private network, running Linux, FreeBSD, or another free OS, and using Beowulf software to function like a single massively parallel computer. All nodes in the system are dedicated to running cluster jobs, and do not function as client machines. A Beowulf cluster is designed for high speed over-reliability. Typically there is only one node that is connected outside of the private network.
 
Bibliographic descriptionInformation about books and other published materials which librarians devise in their cataloguing activity in order to identify and locate items.
 
BifringenceOptical. The property of a material which causes incident light waves of different polarisations to be refracted differently by the material
 
Bifringence, Double-PassOptical. The bifringence that results after incidence and reflection through the protective layer of an optical disk.
 
Bilayer DiskOptical. An optical disk in which the active elements consist of two layers which participate in the creation of a recorded mark when illuminated by high intensity laser light
 
BilevelScanners. A type of image containing only black and white pixels.
 
BinarizationScanners. An operation to process a multilevel input image (grey) into black and white dots. Some input images have variations caused by backgrounds and pictures, other images change due to shading caused by non uniform illumination or change or deterioration of the quality of the scanner lamp, such images are automatically binarized according to the brightness level of the background and local light shading information
 
BiometricsAuthentication that can be directly linked to a unique, biological feature of an individual, such as a thumbprint or a user's retinal pattern.
 
BitmapScanners. An image formed by rectangular grid of picture elements (pixels). The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information (indicating black or white) to 24 bits per pixel Scanners. An image formed by rectangular grid of picture elements (pixels). The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information (indicating black or white) to 24 bits per pixel (for full-colour computer displays), to as many as 64 bits per pixel for some types of full-colour images. A bitmap is an image defined by a collection of dots, as opposed to a vector image, which is defined by mathematical formulas.
 
Black HatA malicious hacker. If a hacker finds a security hole and exploits it or lets others know about it before letting the people affected by the hole know about it, that hacker is described as a black hat hacker. This term comes from cowboy movies, where the bad guy would wear a black hat.
 
Black PointScanners. A movable reference point that defines the darkest area in an image, causing all other areas to be adjusted accordingly.
 
Blind Carbon Copy (BCC)When sending an e-mail, if you BCC someone you are sending him or her a copy of your e-mail, but not allowing the recipients in the "To" or "CC" fields of your e-mail client to know that the BCC recipient was sent the message as well. BCC is often used for covert company communications, such as if you are getting irritated at someone and want to let someone else in on it without alerting the party you are irritated about, or if you are sending the CEO of your company a mail telling him or her he or she is wrong about something and want to BCC copies to your friends to gloat over it. Use BCC with caution. One of the most common uses of BCC is when sending mass e-mails; just send the e-mail to yourself and BCC it to the whole group you are sending to. That way, your mailing list is not known to any of the members.
 
Boolean SearchingThe facility to link separate concepts of a query using 'and', 'or' and 'not' operators when searching a computerised database.
 


Glossary V1.8
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