Information Management

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There are 410 entries in the glossary.
Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Term Definition
Balanced scorecardA business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.
Baseline ReflectanceOptical. The reflectance of an unwritten, non-grooved area of a disk through the protective layer
Batch ScanningScanners. Sequential scanning of multiple originals using previously-defined, unique settings for each.
BeowolfA cluster of computers connected to a high-speed private network, running Linux, FreeBSD, or another free OS, and using Beowulf software to function like a single massively parallel computer. All nodes in the system are dedicated to running cluster jobs, and do not function as client machines. A Beowulf cluster is designed for high speed over-reliability. Typically there is only one node that is connected outside of the private network.
Bibliographic descriptionInformation about books and other published materials which librarians devise in their cataloguing activity in order to identify and locate items.
BifringenceOptical. The property of a material which causes incident light waves of different polarisations to be refracted differently by the material
Bifringence, Double-PassOptical. The bifringence that results after incidence and reflection through the protective layer of an optical disk.
Bilayer DiskOptical. An optical disk in which the active elements consist of two layers which participate in the creation of a recorded mark when illuminated by high intensity laser light
BilevelScanners. A type of image containing only black and white pixels.
BinarizationScanners. An operation to process a multilevel input image (grey) into black and white dots. Some input images have variations caused by backgrounds and pictures, other images change due to shading caused by non uniform illumination or change or deterioration of the quality of the scanner lamp, such images are automatically binarized according to the brightness level of the background and local light shading information
BiometricsAuthentication that can be directly linked to a unique, biological feature of an individual, such as a thumbprint or a user's retinal pattern.
BitmapScanners. An image formed by rectangular grid of picture elements (pixels). The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information (indicating black or white) to 24 bits per pixel Scanners. An image formed by rectangular grid of picture elements (pixels). The computer assigns a value to each pixel, from one bit of information (indicating black or white) to 24 bits per pixel (for full-colour computer displays), to as many as 64 bits per pixel for some types of full-colour images. A bitmap is an image defined by a collection of dots, as opposed to a vector image, which is defined by mathematical formulas.
Black HatA malicious hacker. If a hacker finds a security hole and exploits it or lets others know about it before letting the people affected by the hole know about it, that hacker is described as a black hat hacker. This term comes from cowboy movies, where the bad guy would wear a black hat.
Black PointScanners. A movable reference point that defines the darkest area in an image, causing all other areas to be adjusted accordingly.
Blind Carbon Copy (BCC)When sending an e-mail, if you BCC someone you are sending him or her a copy of your e-mail, but not allowing the recipients in the "To" or "CC" fields of your e-mail client to know that the BCC recipient was sent the message as well. BCC is often used for covert company communications, such as if you are getting irritated at someone and want to let someone else in on it without alerting the party you are irritated about, or if you are sending the CEO of your company a mail telling him or her he or she is wrong about something and want to BCC copies to your friends to gloat over it. Use BCC with caution. One of the most common uses of BCC is when sending mass e-mails; just send the e-mail to yourself and BCC it to the whole group you are sending to. That way, your mailing list is not known to any of the members.
Boolean SearchingThe facility to link separate concepts of a query using 'and', 'or' and 'not' operators when searching a computerised database.
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP).Networking. A TCP/IP protocol that enables a computer to obtain an IP address. Similar to rarp but operates on the entire network. R equires a bootp server on the network.
Buffered SeekStorage products. In the buffered seek mode, the hard Storage products. In the buffered seek mode, the hard disk drive receives all signal pulses for a seek operation at one time and executes them in one go. In the non-buffered seek mode, the controller sends the signal pulse to the drive, the drive will execute this signal pulse, and only then, the next signal pulse may follow. This term is important for ST506 and ESDI drives; with SCSI and ATA, this mode is executed internally.
Burst ErrorStorage products. 1. An interval of clustered error occurrences in which successive bit errors are separated by a specified maximum number of correct bits; alternately, a stream of continuous bit errors or erasures. 2. In error correction, the loss of many consecutive bits of information, usually because of some flaw in the medium such as a scratch or dirt. The distinction is with continuous noise which corrupts data in a different way, requiring a different kind of error correction. In option memory, most data loss is due to burst errors. The design of an error correction code depends on how often error bursts are likely to occur and how long the longest burst is likely to be.
Business requirementsA document containing the set of needs that the customer has that the system is to fulfil.

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Glossary V1.8
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