Information Management


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There are 410 entries in the glossary.
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Term Definition
Hard CopyRefers to documents and records in paper and any other non-electronic format, for example, microfilm, video cassettes and sound cassettes in analogue form.
 
Head CrashStorage products. Unintentional crash of the read/write head on a disk during flight, may cause damage of the disk and/or the head and eventually result in unserviceability of the disk.
 
HeuristicsThis describes a set of rules developed to attempt to solve problems when a specific algorithm cannot be designed. For example, if the problem is "When do you eat food?", if you answer, "When I'm hungry" then you would have to eat immediately every single time you were hungry. Instead, we follow heuristics to determine when to eat by gauging our hunger level, the situation we are in, and our ability to get food. As you can imagine, heuristics are very important for solving artificial intelligence problems.
 
HoldingsThe whole of the archival material in a repository.
 
HoneypotA system left open and unprotected to entice hackers to break into it. Usually this is done so that system administrators can monitor the methods used to break in, the frequency of attack, or just to throw off attackers from the real goodies.
 
HSM (Hierarchical Storage Management)The management of file backup and archiving in a way that uses storage devices economically and without the user needing to be aware of when files are being retrieved from backup storage media.  Although HSM can be implemented on a standalone system, it is more frequently used in the distributed network of an enterprise.  The hierarchy represents different types of storage media, such as redundant array of independent disks systems, optical storage, or tape, each type representing a different level of cost and speed of retrieval when access is needed.
 
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)A standard language used for marking up World Wide Web pages with format styles and links within the same and different documents.
 
Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)Created in 1994, this is a versatile embedded scripting language that can be placed into HTML documents. As long as the webserver supports it, PHP can be used to generate HTML pages by accessing a database. PHP code is executed on the server, and offers an alternative to CGI or SSI calls, or the use of languages such as ColdFusion.
 
IDDStorage products. Intelligent Disk Drive. Usually refers to disk drives with either a SCSI or ATA interface
 
Identification and Authentication (I&A)The service, which protects against the claims of individuals to be someone they are not. Identification is the establishment of the unique identity of an individual, group, or information system component. Authentication is the means for verifying the claimed identity. Use of username and password is an example of I&A. Suggested password length for critical systems is a minimum of 7 characters with forced password changes every 30 days. Non-critical systems should use a 6 character minimum with forced password changes every 60-90 days. The suggested time-out value for screensaver password challenge is 10 minutes or less.
 
IEEE829An IEEE standard for documenting the testing of software. The standard typically applies to any stage in the testing of developing software, and each stage in the software's development typically is documented using the same application of the standard. The IEEE specifies eight stages in the documentation process, each stage producing its own separate document.
 
ImagingThe capability of turning a paper based document into digital form and represent it in user viewable format.
 
IndexingProcess of establishing access points to facilitate retrieval of records and/or information.
 
InformaticsA term that is used in a variety of ways. Some regard it as the study of the impact that technology has on people. Some take a broader view and consider it to be the science of information and information technology. Others regard it as being broader still, referring to the creation, recognition, representation, collection, organisation, transformation, communication, evaluation and control of information in various contexts.
 
InformationData elements or objects generated, transferred, stored, processed and destroyed in the conduct of business functions.
 
Information auditA method of reviewing and mapping information in an organisation. An information audit looks at things like what information is needed, what information there currently is, where it is, in what forms, how it flows around the organisation, where there are gaps and where there is duplication, how much is it costing, what its value is, how it is used etc.
 
Information Domain
A security entity composed of three elements:


  • a user identified to have some responsibilities or privileges in the management of the objects of an information domain
  • a logical description of information management, which depicts the users, processes, and information, which support a business enterprise
  •  method to ensure that information is used correctly.
 
Information ManagementA broader professional grouping for all activities and functions concerned with managing information, regardless of its nature or medium. The records management and archives professions fit into this category.
 
Information Security OfficerThe person appointed by business unit management to be responsible for information security for that business unit.
 
Information SystemA network of related computer software, hardware and data transmission devices that collects and stores data, and is further more able to retrieve and present that data in a human readable format.
 
INITSCSI Initiator. SCSI term that describes any device that has initiated an input/output operation on another SCSI device on the bus which in turn is called TARG.
 
IntegrityThe service that protects information from modification or loss. Restricting user's rights to information as "read only" and use of tape backup systems are examples of Integrity security services.
 
Interleave FactorStorage products. If a program occupies several sectors, the contents of the first sector will first be transmitted from the controller to the computer system when the program is read. This sector is then saved in the memory, which requires a certain period of time. During this time, however, the disk continues to revolve and so it would be necessary to wait one complete revolution of the disk for access to the next sector. During formatting, the continuous sectors therefore are not arranged one after the other physically, but staggered to reduce this waiting time. With an interleave factor of 3, for instance, two sectors are skipped after each sector read. This means the controller has time to further process its data until the disk surface advances two sectors underneath the head. The next logical sector is physical sector 4, and so on. Modern hard disks with integrated controller and own data buffer, the interleave factor is normally 1:1.
 
InternetA network consisting of a network of computers.
 
InterpolationScanners. The process of increasing the resolution of an image by the addition of new pixels throughout the image, the colours of which are based on neighboring pixels.
 
IntranetEssentially a private Internet. It makes use of the same technology as the Internet but is used to establish a network that is private to a company or organisation. People outside the organisation cannot access it.
 
IPNetworking. Internet Protocol: Network layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite. IP is the part of TCP/IP which handles routing.
 
IPX/SPXNetworking. Internetworking Packet eXchange / Sequenced Packet eXchange. Transport layer protocols mainly used in Novell Netware networks but can also be used in Microsoft networks with the NetBIOS interface.
 
ISISScanners. An industry standard driver interface designed to providing a level of device independence between the scanner and application, ISIS was developed by Pixel Translations
 
ItemA single indivisible unit within an archive e.g. a letter, a file, a ledger
 
JavaA programming language similar in syntax to C++ but compiles to a cross-platform bytecode.
 
JPEGJoint Photographic Experts Group has defined a compression-decompression standard for colour and greyscale image applications.
 
JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)Scanners. An image compression/decompression standard that divides the image area into cells to condense information based on content analysis.
 
JukeboxA device that allows a large number of optical discs to be held near-line. It consists of disc racks with space for one or more disc drives and robotic pick-and-place mechanisms. The robotic mechanism relieves the specified disc from the rack, loads it, correctly oriented, into a disc drive and/or returns the last disc read to the storage rack position.
 
Karnaugh MappingA means of showing the relationship between logic inputs and desired output. Generally a truth table is mapped to a smaller, more workable grid of output values (1s and 0s). Karnaugh Mappings are often used when working with electronic circuits and trying to predict their output.
 
Kerr EffectOptical. This describes the effect of laser light that is reflected from a magnetic surface of an optical disk, which rotates clockwise or anticlockwise depending on the polarity of the bit.
 
Kerr RotationOptical. When linearly polarised light passes through a thin magnetic film, the polarisation is rotated by the magnetic field in the film. The direction of rotation is used to read information from rewritable optical disks.
 
KeywordA significant word in a document that helps to define the content of the document.
 
Kilobyte (KB)
One kilobyte = 1,000 bytes (decimal value)

                        1,024 bytes (binary value)

 
KnowledgeA subdivision of document/content management primarily concerned with facilitating
 
Knowledge baseThe fundamental body of knowledge available to an organisation, including the knowledge in people's heads, supported by the organisation's collections of information and data. An organisation may also build subject-specific knowledge bases to collate information on key topics or processes. The term 'knowledge base' is also sometimes used to describe a database of information.
 
Knowledge managementThere is a wide variety of definitions of knowledge management. The following is from knowledge management consultants Tfpl: "The creation and subsequent management of an environment which encourages knowledge to be created, shared, learnt, enhanced, organised and utilised for the benefit of the organisation and its customers".
 
Latency Storage products. The time required for one disk revolution. The average latency is the time required for ½ a disk revolution. This is the average time for the head to reach the required sector after it has been positioned over a track.
 
Legacy SystemsPrevious generation/version information technology architectures and their contents whose dysfunctionalities need to be overcome in deploying new generation/version information technology.
 
Life-CycleA series of status`s that an item goes through from its initial creation through to it being superceded or marked as obsolete.
 
Lifecycle ManagementGraphic definition of content lifecycle with automated lifecycle promotion and demotion. Lifecycle states can automatically modify attributes, security, location., and other content properties.
 
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LAn industry standard open client/server protocol for accessing a directory service, such as Active Directory or Novell Directory Services. It is a simplified version of the X.500 protocol.
 
Line Art Scanners. Images containing only black and white pixels. A single-bit image type that lacks any dithering effect, also known as bilevel images. The term line art is sometimes used to describe drawings containing flat colours without tonal variation.
 
Linear Voice Coil Storage products. Used to position the read/write heads of hard disk drives over the data tracks. There are three main types of design: balanced rotary positioner; non-balanced rotary positioner; linear positioner. All three are feedback systems and vary in the way of converting the power of the motor into a head movement. Today, the type used most is the rotary positioner.
 
LinuxA freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms. The Linux kernel was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds. Because it's free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs and Macintoshes, Linux has become an extremely popular alternative to proprietary operating systems.
 


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Glossary V1.8
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