Information Management


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There are 410 entries in the glossary.
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Term Definition
ListBrief descriptions of archives at group, series or item level.
 
Locally Administered Address (LAA).Networking. An address that a network administrator assigns to a network adapter on Novell network. Administrators may assign the adapter any address that they wish (within certain constraints). Many administrators use the LAA to give the adapter a meaningful address in their workplace (for example, assigning the adapter an address that identifies its location).
 
LosslessScanners. Data compression algorithms that store data in a more efficient format that does not cause any data loss in the compression process. Typically this type of compression has a ratio of up to 8:1.
 
LossyScanners. Data compression algorithms that assumes some of the data in an image file is unnecessary and can be eliminated without affecting the perceived image quality. Typically this type of compression has ratios between 10:1 and 100:1.
 
Low-Level Format (SCSI) Storage products. Formatting which takes place during the manufacturing process. Low-level formatting checks the integrity of the entire data recording area and divides the recording surface into user and spare sector area. The locations of any defective sectors are recorded to prevent future access. Also known as media certification.
 
LPDPrinter Networking. Line printer daemon. Lpd is a background process, which normally runs on a UNIX machine. Lpd accepts new print jobs, queues them and then sends them to the printer when they reach the end of the queue.
 
LPIPrinters / Scanners. A measure of the frequency of a halftone screen (usually ranging from 55-200). Originally, halftones were made by placing an etched glass plate over an image and exposing it to produce dots. Lpi refers to the frequency of the horizontal and vertical lines.
 
LuminosityScanners. A value corresponding to the brightness of colour.
 
Managementaccess to the knowledge/information held in documents.
 
MCLV Optical. Modified Constant Linear Velocity : MCLV refers to the tracks on an optical disk that are separated into bands. Also early Roman for 89th anniversary of William of Normandy's victory over Harold I (King of England) at Hastings although quite a few people had already forgotten by then.
 
MeaningfulThe contextual linkages of records must carry information necessary to correctly understand the transactions that created and used them. It should be possible to identify a record within the context of broader business activities and functions.
 
Media Access Control (MAC).Networking. The MAC is the lower sublayer of the data-link layer (Logical Link Control is the upper sublayer), and it governs access to the transmission media. Each Ethernet device has a unique MAC address assigned on a world wide basis.
 
Megabyte (MB)
One megabyte = 1,000,000 bytes (decimal value)

                            1,048,576 bytes (binary value)

 
Metadata(in the context of records management) Structured or semi-structured information which enables the creation, management and use of records through time and within and across domains in which they are created (source: Archiving Metadata Forum working definition).
 
MethodologyA recommended collection of philosophies, phases, procedures, tools, documentation, management, and training for developers of information systems. Maddison 1983
 
MfmStorage products. Modified Frequency Modulation : Old recording method for storage products with a maximum of 17 sectors per track.
 
Mig HeadStorage products. Metal In Gap Head : An advancement of the ferrite head is the MIG Head (metal-in-gap) in which metal alloys (e.g. AlFeSil) are sputtered in the magnetic gap of the head. This increases substantially the magnetic field strength, allowing higher bit densities to be achieved on highly coercive data carriers.
 
MigrationMigration includes the transfer of the computer files in custody from the current to a new platform (retaining the integrity, authenticity, etc. of the digital archival records). (Comment: this term is also used to describe the transformation of electronic records in legacy data formats into more usable and persistent forms.)
 
MoiréPrinters / Scanners. Undesirable screen pattern in colour process printing caused by incorrect screen angles of halftones.
 
MR HeadStorage products. Magneto Resistive Head : Uses similar technology to thin film heads. It comprises of a magneto resistive read element which is formed first to which an inductive write element is added. Incorporating dedicated elements in this way optimises each part of the head for performance. ~ automatically senses flux, allowing the head to sense smaller magnetic domains.
 
MTBF General computing. Mean Time Between Failures. : Calculated by dividing the total operating time in hours at all field sites by the number of equipment failures from all field sites. Failure of the equipment means failure that requires repair, adjustments, or replacement. Mishandling by the operator, failure due to adverse environmental conditions, power trouble, host system trouble, and other failures not caused by the equipment are not considered.
 
NAP (Normal Administrative Practice)This concept allows for the destruction on a routine basis, without authorisation, of records which have no continuing value to the organisation.
 
NASFixed disks, RAID arrays, and magnetic tape drives connected directly to a Storage Area Network (SAN) or other direct network connection. This s in contrast to a file server where the peripherals are connected to the network via a computer (the server).
 
Natural LanguageRefers to situations in which no controlled vocabulary is used. Indexing and/or retrieval may be based on words from the texts of documents or elsewhere (e.g. from titles), but not from a controlled/authorised list of terms.
 
NetBEUINetworking. NetBIOS Exended User Interface. Transport layer protocol used in Microsoft and IBM PC (OS/2) networks. NetBEUI was introduced by IBM in 1985 for use in networks of 20 to 200 computers. NetBEUI is good in small networks, but not recommended for larger networks and is none routable.
 
NetbIOSNetworking. Network Basic Input Output System. Session layer protocol used in Microsoft and IBM (OS/2) networks.
 
NetmaskNetworking. A bit mask that specifies the local network portion of an IP address, allowing you to logically subdivide a network.
 
Non-repudiationThe service which provides protection from an individual denying sending information (non-repudiation with proof of origin), or protection from an individual denying receiving information (non-repudiation with proof of delivery). These services are closely related to signing and notarization.
 
NRZStorage products. No Return to Zero : Phase coding, used particularly with magnetic tape drives and hard disk drives.
 
O-ROMOptical Optical. Read Only Memory Similar to CD-ROM in concept but applies to optical disk cartridges. The data is stamped on the disk and remains unchangeable.
 
Object OrientedContent objects can be defined with unique attributes.
 
OCR (Optical Character Recognition)Technique for analysing images and recognising and translating the alphanumeric characters into machine-readable text.
 
ODBCOpen DataBase Connectivity : A standard set by Microsoft that allows applications to communicate with a variety of databases. An ODBC client application communicates to the ODBC driver manager, which in turn communicates to a database driver for a specific type of database.
 
ODDOptical. Optical Disk Drive
 
ODMAThe Open Document Management API (ODMA) simplifies integration and interoperability of standard desktop applications with document management systems. Using ODMA, desktop applications access and manipulate documents carried in document management systems as easily as if they are residing in the locally-accessible file system.
 
OLEObject Linking and Embedding: A way of connecting a file with objects from other applications. A linked object is displayed in a new document but remains in a source file/document - when a change is made in a linked object all files connected with it are automatically updated.
 
Open Loop Stepper SystemStorage products. Open loop in contrast to closed loop. Conventionally driven positioning system, where the read/write head is moved over the storage medium in individual, equal and unchangeable steps, irrespective of eventual changes (without feedback), generally driven by a stepper motor.
 
Open SourceOpen source is a work methodology that fits the Open Source Definition, and generally is any computer software whose source code is either in the public domain or, more commonly, is copyrighted by one or more persons/entities and distributed under an open-source license such as the GNU General Public License (GPL).
 
Original orderThe order in which records were kept when in active use by their creators; the archivist aims to maintain or recreate this when cataloguing unless it has been irretrievably lost or never existed i.e. documents were randomly collected.
 
P ListStorage products. SCSI Term. This list contains the position of all the defects which were found before the disk left the factory and is stored in the system area of the disk. The defective areas in the P list are the permanent defects and accordingly must be reflected in the alternate block allocation. Can be read with the READ DEFECT DATA command. (0x37)
 
P-ROMOptical. Partial Read Only Memory. Only part of the optical disk is stamped with unchangeable data, leaving the rest to be written to or erased at will.
 
PC AT InterfaceComputer interfaces. The extension bus for IBM personal computers and their compatibles. The PC AT bus is a 16-bit data bus supporting 24-bit address bus. The address bit of the drive consists of 5 bits after decoding by the host adapter.
 
PCAGeneral computing. Printed Circuit Assembly. Also known as Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
 
PDFThe Portable Document Format is an industrial standard, introduced to the market by Adobe, and suitable for the preservation and distribution of documents. In the PDF-format, in addition to the content of the document, the layout is retained in such a way that the form of the document is identical when it is printed out via a printer or a monitor.
 
Peer-To-PeerNetworking. Network characterised by having no centralised control over access to resources. Computers on such a network may be both clients (using resources) and servers (sharing resources).
 
Petabyte (PB)
One Petabyte (PB) = 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes (decimal)

                                  1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes (binary)

 
PKIPublic Key Infrastructure is the set of security devices that enable the use and management of public-key cryptography and certificates.
 
PortalA special web page that organises access to all of the online resources about a topic, providing a one-stop shop of sorts.
 
Positioning TimeStorage products. The total of the seek time and average latency time. PR4ML Storage products Partial Response class 4 Maximum Likelihood
 
PreservationProcesses and operations involved in ensuring the technical and intellectual survival of authentic records through time.
 


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Glossary V1.8
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